Political science, are also Politology, is called social science, involved in the study of the theoretical and practical features of politics, that is, the political and government systems, the behavior of societies, to establish a method accurate and objective about these matters, based on the observation of reality.
Their Usual Analysis Methods are:
- Experimental: Through social experiments and simulated conditions that compare societies reactions.
- Statistics: Through the mathematical processing of data from practical and also measured facts.
- It compared: Through comparative analysis between two or more political situations of interest.
- Historical: Through the review of the available bibliography and also the evocation of past political situations
Origin of Political Science
This discipline originated from political philosophy, a division of philosophy specializing in the relationships among people and society, but now political science is indistinguishable from its precursor. It is considered a relatively modern science whose actual development occurred in the 20th century after World War II.
Object of Political Science
The object of political science is, as we thought before, politics. It is equivalent to saying that it deals with the power relations established within that pact of mutual coexistence that is the State. Therefore it does not mean that it is a doctrine on the art of government, much less an applicable method.
Yes, instead, it deals with the relationships of obedience and domination within the political organization, trying to build an objective method to understand the origin and social functioning of these structures. It is involved in authority, types of power, political and social classes, mechanisms of domination and conviction, the legitimation of power, etc.
The Main Areas of Research, in this Sense, Are:
- Political power and its means of obtaining.
- The authority and legitimacy of power.
- The origin and functioning of the State.
- The public administration.
- The political behavior of societies.
- Political communication and public opinion.
- International relations.
The Importance of Political Science
Political science is essential for advancing the study of the mechanisms of power. Whether from the Executive or the Legislative powers, jurists and economists or people linked to the significant financial market, the performance of politicians is directly related to management. Understanding power is necessary to advance political institutions and avoid abuses of power perpetrated by the State, governments or financial institutions. For advances in this field to be practical, there are four basic concepts:
Therefore they are the first political institutions that brought together human beings through a well-defined legal structure. With the birth of the polis (city-state) in Ancient Greece, concerns about politics arise.
It is essential, as a notion, for political science, and also it exists in any political formation, with only the range of power allowed by this device varying. In the aristocracy, citizenship is granted to a minority chosen supposedly for its qualities; the oligarchy, to a group more significant than the aristocratic, determined by financial power. In absolutism, citizenship is restricted to the figure of the monarch. In a democracy, it is distributed among everyone who can participate in the political system.
civil and politics are objects of study in political science and legal science (law).
One of the essential notions of political science, as it tries to understand the most notable political forms and structures of social-political treatment.
Political Science Methods
Political science is help in its research tasks by quantitative and qualitative methods. It proceeds to combine both due to the limitation of sticking to only one of them.
For example, a survey is a quantitative tool, it gives us a general vision of the problems of the citizens, of the vote, their preferences, etc., but it does not allow us to investigate. For this, qualitative techniques will enable us to know in depth the population’s problems or the phenomenon we want to study.
Labor Field of Political Sciences
You will participate in the formulation of public policies in various government areas, their implementation and evaluation. You will be able to perform as an advisor and official in the different powers and institutions of the State, both at the national, regional and local levels.
You can be part of the institutional, community, international relations or strategic planning of companies.
International and Non-Governmental Development Organizations
You will be able to contribute to the analysis and solution of the problems that limit development efforts.
Political Communication, Public Opinion and Mass Communication
You will also be train to develop public opinion studies, analysis of public affairs and content production for television, radio and print media.
You will be able to perform the search, analysis and dissemination of knowledge based on evidence and also applicable to the interpretation of political reality.
Diplomacy and Analysis of International Relations
The Specialty also enables you to enter the country’s Foreign Service and other international entities with a special qualification based on your training in International Relations.
Political science is the field of social sciences that studies the structures that shape the rules of coexistence between people in clusters. Political science is dedicate to understanding and also shaping State, government, and political organization notions.